Dental implant myths debunked by our dentist

Want to have dental implants fitted but are worried they will fall out?walkerston-dentist

Our dentist Walkerston knows all there is to know about the fitting, care and maintenance of dental implants.  They aim to ensure that any implant fitted by us will last a long time.

Here, we look at some of the most common myths that our dentist Walkesrton has heard about dental implants.

Dental implants will become infected

It is exceedingly rare that a dental implant will become infected.

If our dentist Walkerston suspects that you have an infected dental implant, we will need to remove it to ascertain the reason for the infection and to treat it accordingly.

Dental implants will fall out

If fitted correctly, and providing that you do not have any underlying health conditions that could prompt them to fall out, your oral implants should stay in place.

The fitting itself requires us to take x-rays of your jaw, to check for signs that you will not be able to support a standard implant. If we determine that you are suitable (subject to medical questions too) then there is no reason why your implants should just spontaneously fall out.

Please note that implants can become loose initially after the fitting if you apply pressure on them via a toothbrush or by consuming hard food. If you have worries that your implant is not fusing promptly, call us for a check-up.

Dental implants prevent you from travelling via aeroplanes

Many patients have concerns that once they have oral implants fitted, they will not be able to travel abroad due to the metal detector used at airports.

The good news is that, no, oral implants do not prevent you from travelling on aeroplanes.

Dental implants are made from titanium, which means they are non-magnetic and will not set off a metal detector. Titanium is also used to create other surgical implants such as hip replacements and knee replacements, both of which do not prevent you from flying due to detection using a metal detector.

So, you can still go on holiday, don’t worry about it!

Dental implants are too expensive to afford

This is one of the most common myths that we experience at Walkerston Dental. Dental implants are not too expensive for the average person to afford.

Our team is proud to be able to offer our suitable patients 0% financing offers which can help you break down the cost into affordable monthly repayments.

If you would like more information about this, then please contact our team today.

Dental implants don’t last long

With correct maintenance and aftercare, dental implants can easily last for up to and over 15 years.

This does mean that, even though they are prosthetic teeth, you need to treat them as you treat(ed) your natural teeth. You will need to brush them twice a day, floss, rinse with mouthwash and of course, attend dental check-ups with our team twice a year. This is so we can keep an eye open for signs of gum disease and other issues that could cause your implants to come loose, such as rejection from your body.

You can also promote the longevity of your implants by refraining from smoking and drinking alcohol excessively.

DISCLAIMER

All treatment carries risks. Individual consultation is required with one of our practitioners to ensure that the treatment is right for you.

Twenty-first century dental care

At our dentist Walkerston we want your dental experience to be calming and friendly whilst using the latest in dental technologies. The dental industry’s technology has moved rapidly into the twenty-first century, with an amazing array of dental equipment now available. But none of this is of any value unless the service received is of the same quality. Our service is designed around you and that is why we make a concerted effort to build a relationship and trust with you. We know and understand that some patients are nervous and anxious when visiting the dentist and we work hard to make you feel relaxed. From the warm welcoming reception you will receive to the caring, understanding dentist, we are all trained to make your dental experience a pleasantly memorable one.dentist-in-walkerston

Keeping you in the picture

Our dentist Walkerston has a dental chair that has its own built-in entertainment centre, allowing you to listen to your favourite music while we treat you. We keep you in the picture as to what condition we have identified and the treatment we will administer by providing a screen on the ceiling, so that you can watch us at work in real time. If you don’t want to watch the screen this can obviously be turned off.

Your children

All members of the team at our dentist Walkerston are big on preventive dentistry for all ages, but especially children because we believe that you as a parent can give your child the perfect gift of lifetime dental health. We ask you to bring your children in with you when you come for your dental visits, not necessarily for them to be examined in the beginning, but to get comfortable with the dental surroundings. That way by the time their first dental appointment comes around, going to the dentist will be just another routine visit to them.

No need to suffer with misaligned teeth

We all remember the ‘scaffolding’ that some children wore when we were at school and how uncomfortable it looked. The science of correcting misaligned teeth has led to some incredible developments. Crooked, ill-spaced teeth or overbites and underbites, etc. are now far more easily treatable at almost any age. The type of condition identified will dictate the best appliance to be used to correct it. Braces have also undergone a transformation and in some cases are fitted to the inside of the teeth so that they are barely visible. In addition dental aligners have become very popular, as they are made from a clear, high-grade plastic material and are almost invisible. They also work differently to braces, instead of being attached to your teeth by brackets they utilise a series of ‘trays’ which resemble gum shields. Each tray is orientated slightly differently so that your teeth are gently eased into their desired positions, resulting in them being straightened. The technology available even allows us to show you how your teeth will look after treatment, before the treatment has even begun.

Trained and ready to serve you

The technology we have at our disposal means that nobody needs to suffer with any dental condition today. We regularly attend training and seminars that allow us to keep up to date with equipment and the latest techniques. Your dental health is in our experienced hands when you come to us. We are waiting to attend to your particular dental needs.

All treatment carries risks. Individual consultation is required with one of our practitioners to ensure that the treatment is right for you.

Key reasons to see our dentist for a checkup

Are you delaying attending a dental checkup? Do you believe that you should only see a dental team when you are in discomfort?dentist-walkerston

Aside from simply keeping your smile whiter and healthier, there are many other reasons why dental checkups are so important.

At Walkerston Dental, our dentist Walkerston always aims to encourage regular checkups with our patients to help keep their oral and overall health in top condition.

Here, our dentist Walkerston discusses the benefits of regular dental checkups, so enjoy!

Protect your gums

Gum disease is a big issue in modern society, and our dentist Walkerston knows that the best way to prevent gum disease is to attend regular checkups.

This will allow our team to remove any plaque on your teeth that could be hard to reach, thus preventing any secondary inflammation from occurring. We can also perform a scale and polish if needed, which will remove plaque, bacteria and tartar from above and below the gumline. If we feel you need a bit more of a deep clean, we can also refer you to our hygienist. Great!

Protect your teeth

Of course, one of the other key points surrounding dental checkups involves the protection of your teeth.

Cavities can be detected, fluoride sealants can be applied and any loose restoratives, such as fillings or crowns, can be reset. All of these can prevent discomfort, degeneration of the teeth and more serious issues from occurring, like abscesses and tooth loss.

Furthermore, during a dental checkup, our team can help restore any missing teeth using dentures, bridges or even dental implants.

Protect your general health

Have you ever heard that there is a link between the condition of your teeth and your overall health? It’s not a myth!

When you book yourself in for a dental checkup, you are allowing our team to assess the condition of your mouth and remove any excessive amounts of plaque that you may have. Similarly, we can also assess for other conditions such as oral cancer, which we will talk more about later.

If you delay having your teeth looked at, you run the risk of developing gum disease, which allows plaque and other bacteria access to your bloodstream. This in turn has been linked to cancer, strokes and other serious health conditions. So, protect your health and book that checkup today!

Oral cancer screening

Whenever you attend a dental checkup with us, our team will always check for signs of oral cancer and ask about any unusual symptoms you have had.

Whilst nobody enjoys the thought of having that suspicious lump in their mouth looked at, it is important to do so as soon as possible; with the correct diagnostics and treatment, oral cancer has one of the highest recovery rates. In our team’s experience, most cases of oral lumps are benign. Nevertheless, if you have a persistent sore throat, oral ulcers that keep recurring or lumps in your mouth, please book an appointment to see our team promptly!

DISCLAIMER

All treatment carries risks. Individual consultation is required with one of our practitioners to ensure that the treatment is right for you.

Hygiene tips from our dentist at Walkerston Dental

When it comes to maintaining teeth, it is important to get the fundamentals right first.dentist-walkerston

And where is a better place to start than with dental hygiene?

Our team at Walkerston Dental believes that prevention is better, especially when it comes to dental care! Our dentist Walkerston is always eager to discuss ways to improve oral hygiene with our patients and their families, so if you are ever stuck for hygiene tips, call us!

Here, our dentist Walkerston provides 5 key tips to keep your dental hygiene and health in tip-top condition.

Two minutes each day!

Of course, the starting point for good dental hygiene is going to be at home.

And as such, our dentist Walkerston recommends to all of our patients that they should brush their teeth for 2 minutes, twice a day. This is pivotal to keeping your teeth and gums in good condition because it removes the daily accumulation of plaque, thus preventing it from turning into tartar.

Interdental is needed

You may have heard of interdental brushing; this is typically done with a small toothbrush that looks a bit like a mascara wand!

Using these to brush between your teeth before your standard brushing can loosen stuck debris from your teeth, which is then removed when you use your general toothbrush.

If you aren’t sure how to use an interdental brush or want some tips to show your children how to use them, talk to our team for advice.

Don’t rinse

After you have finished brushing your teeth, you may be tempted to rinse your mouth out with water.

But studies have shown that if you rinse your mouth out after brushing, you are removing fluoride. This is present in toothpaste and is an essential part of what makes it so beneficial to protecting the teeth.

By avoiding rising, you are ensuring that the fluoride stays on your teeth and continues to protect your teeth against bacteria in your mouth.

Fluoride, fluoride, fluoride!

Following on from the above point, if you have weakened enamel, have a history of tooth decay or simply want to prevent issues from occurring, it is worth investing in high fluoride toothpaste and mouthwashes.

Not only will using a high fluoride cleaning kit prevent the chances of you developing tooth decay, but it will also add protection to your teeth. If you aren’t sure which strength of fluoride toothpaste or mouthwash to use, ask our team for more advice. If you have children, you should not give them access to adult toothpaste, as the higher fluoride content can be damaging to their teeth.

Check-ups

Of course, a key factor in keeping your teeth and gums in good condition is to attend regular dental check-ups. We recommend seeing our general dental team once every 6 months and our hygienist at least once a year. If you have gum disease, a history of gum disease or even a family history of periodontal issues, then you may want to see our hygienist with the same regularity with which you see our regular dental team.

This will help us to remove plaque, apply fluoride sealants and prevent cavities for you and your entire family.

DISCLAIMER

All treatment carries risks. Individual consultation is required with one of our practitioners to ensure that the treatment is right for you.

What to do when facing a dental emergency

Diving into action rather than waiting for a miracle

dentist-walkerston

When faced with dental pain or discomfort, it can, in some cases, be easy to push the irritation aside with the use of painkillers or mind over matter. But whilst this may give you an extra day or two, when noticeable discomfort within the mouth begins to impact your daily life it is important to contact our Dentist Walkerston promptly so as to eliminate the chances of further discomfort or damage.

Whilst in mild cases of discomfort the need for an emergency appointment may not be as severe, for cases where a tooth has been knocked out, whether through accidental injury or long term oral hygiene failures, the importance of getting the area checked over quickly could not be greater. After all, leaving gaps within the mouth can lead to further dental complications down the line such as further tooth loss, cause a wonky smile and in severe cases, an alteration to the facial bone structure. Whilst this all may sound a little far fetched for the loss of a couple of teeth, the impact when left untreated, can be severe but avoided with a quick call to action once the incident occurs.

Can the injury wait until my next check up appointment?

If your regular dental check-up is coming up and you damage a tooth just weeks beforehand, the thought of an emergency dental appointment may seem a lot of unnecessary fuss. Whilst the impact on your personal time may be positively impacted, the longer the wait for the issue to be sorted, the greater the chances for more extensive treatments and procedures to be needed. The impact of the pain may also increase creating further disruption to daily life. An emergency appointment with our Dentist Walkerston can often be arranged for the same day so as to relieve the discomfort immediately.

What to expect

Unlike a general dental appointment, the aim of an emergency appointment is to relieve any pain or discomfort promptly and discover the extent of the damage along with devising a sufficient and customised plan to tackle the problem. The treatment needed varies from patient to patient as it depends entirely on the individual circumstances, however, no matter what the damage it is important to know that each solution offered will be with the long-term in mind. In an emergency, your Dentist Walkerston aim is to provide a quick fix for your pain, but they will also help provide a long-term plan as required to fix the root cause of the issue.

Booking your emergency appointment

Whilst there are many ways to contact our team when facing a dental emergency the best form of action is to pick up the phone and give the dental practice a call. This ensures that a member of the team can be quick to deal with your problem and ensure that you are seen promptly. After all, no one wants to have you in pain so fast and targeted action is the best approach.

On occasions when all the emergency appointments have been filled for the day, the dental practice will work effortlessly to either fit your appointment in at the practice chosen or in some cases refer you to one of the other dental practices. Either way, it is important to know that you are in experienced hands and your treatment is the top priority.

All treatment carries risks. Individual consultation is required with one of our practitioners to ensure that the treatment is right for you.

Do you need to see an emergency dentist? A brief guide from Walkerston Dental

Are you unsure if that wobbly filling can wait until next week to be seen? Or have you noticed a slowly growing swelling in your mouth and aren’t sure what to do?dentist-in-walkerston

If you answered yes to either of these questions, you need to see an emergency dental team to prevent any long-term issues with your teeth.

At Walkerston Dental, our emergency dentist in Walkerston is proud to be able to offer our patients appointments within 24 hours of the initial phone call being made. This will get you out of discomfort and will enable you to get on with your day pain-free. What’s not to like about that?

So, what are some of the reasons to visit our emergency dentist in Walkerston? Read on to find out!

You are in discomfort

A key reason to visit our dentist in Walkerston for a same-day appointment is if you are suffering from discomfort.

This can range from a twinge when you drink hot or cold drinks to full-on discomfort which is keeping you awake during the night and preventing you from focusing. Oftentimes, if it is the latter, you will be suffering from either a dental abscess or an impacted tooth, both of which require urgent medical attention.

You have sudden swelling

Swelling to the mouth, face, neck or jaw needs to be explored as soon as possible by a medical professional, even if it isn’t causing discomfort.

Swelling to these areas can signify an abscess (perhaps under a root canalled tooth if there is no discomfort), an impacted tooth or a severe food allergy. In rare cases, it can even point to cancer, so get it checked ASAP!

You have lost a restorative

Even the best fitting fillings and crowns can come loose and if you notice that one of yours has fallen out, we will need to see you promptly.

This is to prevent bacteria from getting access to areas of the tooth that were previously hidden by the restorative (like the pulp) and to stop abscesses from forming. So, like the swelling, even if you aren’t in discomfort, we will still need to see you.

You have an uncontrollable bleed

Bleeding from the mouth is common if you regularly engage in contact sports.

If you have a bleed that hasn’t stopped with 20 minutes of pressure (use a gauze), you will need to see our team.

We will assess the cause of the persistent bleed and will aim to prevent any further blood loss either using stitches or surgical glue.

You have chipped or cracked a tooth

Chips and cracks can be caused by anything but when they happen, they can cause more problems than a simple aesthetic issue.

Much like a lost restorative, they can allow bacteria access to previously shielded areas of the tooth, which can cause cavities and further damage. As the treatment for cracks and chips is usually a composite filling, it won’t cost you anything to see our team to have them repaired.

DISCLAIMER

All treatment carries risks. Individual consultation is required with one of our practitioners to ensure that the treatment is right for you.

Why would a dentist recommend a tooth to be extracted?

At Walkerston Dental, a top concern of our dentist Walkerston is to preserve the dental health of all our patients, which is why we offer a diverse array of dental treatments to cover many common oral health issues.dentist-walkerston

One of the dental treatments that increases the anxiety levels of many patients is that of tooth extractions. While our dentist Walkerston will do all that is possible to save and protect the natural teeth of a patient, sometimes this is not possible. Tooth extraction is a fairly common procedure and with modern dental techniques, having a tooth extracted need not be as nerve-wracking as it was once reputed to be.

What to know about tooth extractions

Depending on the nature and severity of a tooth that is damaged or is in a state of decay, our friendly dentist Walkerston can repair the damage or stop the decay from progressing with suitable intervention measures.

Tooth extraction is a procedure that sees the skills of a dental practitioner remove a tooth from its natural socket. This procedure becomes necessary when any attempts to save a damaged tooth have proved fruitless. Some of these reasons include:

  • Trauma or injury to the face resulting in extensive tooth damage.
  • Tooth decay has reached deep into the inner parts of the tooth.
  • To create space in the dental arch, prior to orthodontic treatment, so that teeth can develop properly.
  • The removal of Wisdom teeth.
  • When baby teeth obstruct the appearance of permanent teeth (when these would normally appear).

Before initiating a tooth extraction procedure, our dental practitioner will want to go over a patient’s complete medical and dental history, in addition to taking X-rays in order to gain a deeper insight into the condition of the affected tooth.

The process of a tooth extraction will depend on the condition of damage or decay. Often for a simple extraction procedure, a local anaesthetic will be applied, while for more complicated extractions, a general anaesthetic may be required for a surgical extraction.

Simple tooth extractions are typically performed on a tooth that can be seen in the mouth (above the gum line). First, the tooth and surrounding gum tissue is numbed, the tooth is then loosened with a special dedicated instrument before being completely removed from its placing with dental forceps.

If a simple extraction is not suitable (when a tooth is damaged at the gum line or one that has not yet cut its way above the gum line), a dental practitioner may consider surgical extraction. This type of extraction is considered more complex, as a dental practitioner will have to cut into the gum line in order to reach the tooth that needs to be removed.

Once a tooth has been removed, it is imperative that the patient keep the area clean, so as to avoid the area becoming infected. It is equally important to stringently follow all aftercare instructions provided by the dentist. To book a consultation with our dentist at Walkerston Dental clinic, please reach out to our helpful team at the front desk.

All treatment carries risks. Individual consultation is required with one of our practitioners to ensure that the treatment is right for you.

Worried about an upcoming tooth extraction? A brief guide from our dentist at Walkerston Dental

It can happen to the best of us; you are going about your day when suddenly you get a sharp pain in your jaw which makes your eyes water. A trip to our team reveals that you have an impacted wisdom tooth that needs to be extracted, leaving you with a lot of questions about what to expect from the procedure.

dentist-walkerstonAs unpleasant as they sound, dental extractions are exceedingly common and have a myriad of uses in dental care. While you may envision the old ‘tie a string to the door handle and slam it’ technique, this process has come a long way in relation to comfort, ease and more successful long term outcomes.

At Walkerston Dental, we provide extractions to patients across a range of ages, for different reasons as part of our general dental care. Our dentist Walkerston uses the most advanced tools to make the process as smooth as possible and to ensure that the aftercare is a breeze too. We also offer restoratives, so if a gap is left in your smile, it won’t dent your confidence or impact on your mouth’s functionality. Perfect!

So, what are some of the things that our dentist Walkerston is asked about extractions?

Why are teeth extracted or pulled?

There are many reasons why our dentist Walkerston may choose to extract your tooth. It may have decayed beyond repair, impacted (not erupting correctly and pressing on the root of a nearby tooth) or it may need removing to make room for orthodontic movement from an upcoming brace or aligner to ensure a smooth journey to straighter teeth.

What types of extraction are there?

Typically, there are two. A simple extraction which involves the removal of a tooth that is above the gum line and a surgical extraction, which may revolve around extracting a tooth that has broken and requires some incisions to remove.

Regardless of the type, we will ensure you are numbed prior to the work starting, so you won’t feel a thing!

How long will it take?

This depends on the type of extraction you are having, but don’t worry; we will complete it in one session!

A simple extraction usually takes up to 30 minutes, whereas a surgical extraction can take up to an hour. You will be numbed throughout the procedure and we will offer distractions (such as headphones) if needed. We want you to be comfortable after all!

Is aftercare difficult?

If you have had a surgical extraction, you will likely have stitches. Therefore, you will need to be a bit softer with your daily brushing.

Also, gargle salt water to keep the extraction site clean and if you have any concerns about healing or infection, contact our team for advice.

How can I prevent infection?

To prevent infection post-extraction, we advise that you gargle with salt water daily, avoid alcohol and refrain from smoking; these can all cause inflammation of the gums which can heighten the chances of an infection occurring.

If you suspect an infection, contact our team for an emergency appointment.

DISCLAIMER

All treatment carries risks. Individual consultation is required with one of our practitioners to ensure that the treatment is right for you.

Need a root canal? 5 key advantages from our dentist at Walkerston Dental

There are few dental patients who would be happy to find out that they require a root canal.dentist-in-walkerston

As one of the most common of all the procedures performed by a general dental team, a root canal seeks to remove all of the infected material from the inside of the tooth, following an infection or the exposure of the pulp via a facial trauma.

So, why is it so unpopular?

We have a few theories! And the most common one is that dental patients are not often aware of the facts about root canals and as is usually the way with lack of knowledge, worry is the go-to response. In this article, we hope to change that a bit and to explain why root canals are beneficial.

At Walkerston Dental, our team knows all about root canals/endodontics and can ensure that if you need these procedures, they will be comfortable and the outcomes as long-lasting as possoble. Over the years, our dentist in Walkerston has performed thousands of root canals and can attest to the efficacy of the treatment and the benefits that it offers over alternative treatments.

What are some of those benefits? Read on to find out!

Pain-relief

You have likely heard that root canals are uncomfortable. In short, this is not true and in actuality, they often resolve persistent dental discomfort.

Prior to the procedure being performed, our dentist in Walkerston will numb your mouth and once all of the infected material is removed, the swelling will recede and you will feel more comfortable.

Aesthetic

One of the main advantages of having a root canal performed by our dentist in Walkerston is the aesthetic benefit.

Suppose you had an infected tooth near the front of your mouth- would you really want to have it extracted? A root canal restores the strength of your tooth without impacting its physical appearance, allowing you to keep your glorious smile intact! Perfect!

Hygienic

A root canal is only usually performed if there is an infection. And as the procedure itself involves the removal of the infected debris, it prevents the bacteria from spreading to surrounding teeth and tissue, keeping your mouth and oral health in good condition.

It also prevents damage to the jaw bone and reinfection, which can and does occur following an extraction.

Preventive

While a root canal is a preventive against future infections, it also prevents a myriad of other dental issues from occurring.

It stops tooth movement that often accompanies extraction, thus it prevents orthodontic work. It prevents gum disease by keeping all of your teeth in your mouth. It also prevents expensive cosmetic procedures to fill in the gap in your smile.

Cost-effective

Following on from the last point, orthodontics and cosmetics procedures like dental implants after an extraction are not cheap, and can often come with other complications.

By having a root canal, you can actually save yourself from expensive treatments and save yourself a great deal of time that could be otherwise spent in the dental chair.

DISCLAIMER

All treatment carries risks. Individual consultation is required with one of our practitioners to ensure that the treatment is right for you.

Not sure why you are snoring? Health risks of sleep apnoea from our dentist

Are you fed up with being banished to the spare room for snoring? Are you irritated by waking up with a headache and a sore throat?dentist-walkerston

Common in the population, snoring is often seen as an illness in itself, with many pharmacies offering nasal strips and tongue compressors all designed to eliminate snoring altogether. However, snoring is actually a symptom of many underlying medical issues and if you snore regularly (3 times or more a week), you should seek out professional help.

But what’s so problematic about making snorting noises a few times a week while you sleep?

At Walkerston Dental, our team has helped many of our patients overcome snoring and get a restful 40 winks with the use of custom-fitted mouth guards. Our dentist Walkerston will also offer you a health assessment if you come to us with snoring issues, helping to underpin the cause of this issue. After all, sleep is extremely important!

If through our tests we determine that you have obstructive sleep apnoea (a common cause of recurrent snoring), our dentist Walkerston will refer you on for further assessment due to the associated health risks. Are there health risks of untreated sleep apnoea? Read on to find out.

Respiratory issues

A key issue that occurs with sleep apnoea is oxygen deprivation, which is why our dentist Walkerston is so eager to help patients who snore.

Prolonged exposure to nocturnal oxygen deprivation can cause respiratory issues and you will probably begin to feel more out of breath in your daily life.

Depending on the severity of your sleep apnoea, we can help boost your oxygen levels with a night time mouth guard or a continuous positive airway pressure (or CPAP) machine.

Hormone issues

Untreated sleep apnoea has been linked to a whole host of metabolic and endocrine issues, ranging from insulin resistance to high blood pressure.

To avoid these secondary complications, our team will send you for an assessment to determine how severe your apnoea is, which will impact on the choice of treatment we offer to you. Simple!

Digestive issues

There is an interesting link between those who suffer from sleep apnoea and digestive disorders, such as heartburn, acid reflux or gastrointestinal reflux disorder or GERD. As these issues are more likely to occur at night, this can become a vicious cycle.

While you will need to see your doctor for help relieving the symptoms of most gastrointestinal issues, our team can protect your teeth against acid damage with fluoride sealants, while also preventing sleep apnoea with a special custom-fitted mouthpiece.

Cognitive issues

Sleep is important and if you regularly suffer from disturbed sleep due to sleep apnoea, this will have an obvious impact on your ability to function in your daily life and your mental health.

If you are worried about your sleep patterns and have had everything else ruled out by a doctor, visit our dental team for a full assessment and we will get you back to getting good sleep in no time!

DISCLAIMER

All treatment carries risks. Individual consultation is required with one of our practitioners to ensure that the treatment is right for you.